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1 – Wars and battles Project
1.1 Contact us
For any question, remark or suggestion, you can:
- post on our forum:
- or send us an email at: firstname.lastname@example.org
1.2 Wars and Battles
Wars and Battles is a platform of wargames:
- Our goal is to create games simulating historical battles and campaigns over several centuries and across different continents. In order to achieve this ambitious undertaking, we have developed an exclusive rules system allowing us to simulate a great many number of different rules.
- Our game is based upon the best design practices of board wargaming but with a user-friendly interface, as expected by tablets users. We have worked with veteran wargamers in order to design our rules system and game engine.
- The game has been released on iPad but will be cross-platform. The Android Tablets, PC, Mac and Smartphones version will be released soon.
1.3 Purchase structure
By buying the Wars and Battles app you will be able to play the campaign in each of the 7 battles we will release in 2014 and 2015. This represents more than 70 original scenarios in 7 different battles.
If you like the Campaign, you can buy the Advanced and Battle Scenarios through in-app purchases.
- Austerlitz 1805; Wargame Designer: Frederic Bey
- Gettysburg 1863; Wargame Designer: Antoine Bourguilleau
- Kharkov 1943; Wargame Designer: Nicolas Stratigos
- Normandy 1944: Wargame Designer: Arnaud de Peretti
- Market Garden 1944; Wargame Designer: Sebastien de Peyret
- The Korean War 1950-51; Wargame Designer: Michel Goya
- October War 1973; Wargame Designer: Pierre Razoux
The production of these battles will keep us busy during the year 2015, but if you have ideas for future battles, please tell us about it on our forum. We are already thinking about a new set of 7 additional battles!
1.5 Artificial intelligence
The artificial intelligence developed in Normandy 1944 currently corresponds to a beginner / intermediate player. It has a good tactical level but can be improved at operational and strategic level. Nevertheless, it already provides wargamers with a challenging experience on many scenarios!
The team has worked continuously to improve the AI in order to adapt it to future battles, but also to create an even deeper gaming experience in solo mode.
1.6 Gaining experience and upgrading your rank
For each scenario being played, you gain experience and eventually your rank will upgrade:
- The best score for each scenario played (and for each camp separately) is used for the calculation of the points gained: replay a scenario will give you extra experience points only if you improve your score
- Gaining experience is effective in both solo and multiplayer modes, so you can earn experience points 4 times (solo or multiplayer, and Allied or Axis in Normandy 1944 for instance)
Upgrading your rank lets you:
- Access new recommendations on the use of the game
- Avoid unnecessary tutorials over the next battles we will release
- Better choose your opponents in multiplayer mode
On top of that, as part of the ongoing evolution of Wars and Battles in 2015, upgrading your rank will give you access to new features and new exclusive content!
2 – NORMANDY 1944
2.1 Historical context
Four years after being expelled from Western Europe, two years after landing in North Africa and while the fighting rages in Italy and especially on the Eastern Front, the Allies land in Normandy on June 6th, 1944.
2.1.2 The German rationale
Everyone knows that the Campaign will be crucial and that its outcome may occur quite fast. Marshal Rommel, who wanted the German troops deployed closer to the shores, has not been successful. Unlike most of his colleagues of the German High Command, he was able to measure the effects of the Allies’ air superiority when he fought in North Africa. In his opinion, deploying reinforcements too far from the coast is pointless: should the weather be too lenient, the sky will be full of Allied planes and the German army will be paralyzed.
That’s what happens. And the German Troops must do everything they can, improvising and trying to stop the Allies’ steamroller. They actually do so by relying on Caen, taking advantage of the terrain including the bocage that slows down the Allied progression and striking when they can with their powerful Panzer Divisions. The Axis’ formations are more flexible than the Allies’ and the German Heavy Tanks Battalions are quite daunting, but it has far less supply than the opponent. Therefore, they must strike hard, and never hesitate to retreat to better regroup – despite the Führer’s hysterical exhortations not to give an inch!
2.1.3 British Power
If, in June 1944, Great-Britain is in a much better state than in 1940, when it was standing alone against Germany being sole master on the European continent, four years of war have exhausted both its financial and human resources. On June 6 1944, the British deploy their last resources, which are almost non-existent. Still, their troops are highly experienced, their material is good and they can pull resources from the Commonwealth countries, including Canada. Excellent in defense, the British infantry is not as good in offensive strikes but the British armor’s quality is good, including the Sherman Firefly with the 17-pounder, which can pierce the armor of the biggest German Tanks.
2.1.4 American Power
The great American war machine is turned on in late 1941, after the Japanese attack against Pearl Harbor. In 1944, it is in full swing and produces every month thousands of tanks and aircrafts. More than five million American soldiers are at boot camp in the United States. General Eisenhower is missing of neither material nor men, but the fighting in North Africa and Italy showed that the US military was inexperienced. In June 1944, it has learnt from its mistakes and can start making a par with the German Army.
2.1.5 Other countries involved
Many nationalities have been pulled in the Normandy turmoil, either in the German Army or the Allied Armies.
In addition to the British and American Forces, three other countries mainly participated in the Allied Forces. This is Canada, France and Poland. These three countries have units represented in Normandy 1944:
- Canadian Troops landed on Juno Beach June 6, 1944 and immediately distinguished by their courage in this difficult landing and then in the Battle of Caen facing powerful German Armored Divisions.
- General Leclerc’s Free French are mostly grouped in the Second Armored Division, which is attached to the Third US Army under the command of General Patton. They are not involved in landing and arrive in France on 1 August. The 2nd Armored Division participated in the famous Cobra operation that allows US troops to break through the German front in the grove. The Free French then distinguish themselves by their strength through the release of Paris.
- The 1st Polish Division arrives in Normandy late July 1944. It is attached to the 2nd Canadian Corps. This Division’s glory lies in its decisive role during the fighting at the Falaise Pocket where it managed to junction with US troops from the South and to hold several days Mount Ormel against determined German Troops.
2.2 Game overview
Normandy 1944 is a historical strategy game that simulates the entire Battle of Normandy from 6 June to 25 August 1944, at an operative scale.
For this battle, the key design figures are shown in the following table.
2.3 Wargame designer
Officer in the French Army, having served in the Foreign Legion and the Cavalry, Commander Peretti has designed this game based on both his passion for wargames and his knowledge of history as well as his military experience. In addition to being a wargamer since the age of 16 and holding a History Masters from the Sorbonne, he has been an Officer for 18 years. What he wanted to achieve in Normandy 1944 was the best balance between playability and historical realism. Based on the fundamental laws of war, such as freedom of action, economy of means and concentration of effort, Normandy 1944 should meet both novices and old veterans’ expectations.
- Artillery: units including Army Corps Artillery Reserve with heavy guns
- Armor: units composed of tanks, light to medium-sized
- Counter: element of the game containing a brief description of the unit, its attack and defense values, its movement capacity, etc. It is possible to expand the units’ stats by tapping the small + symbol (on the counter) to access the description of the unit
- Infantry: troops fighting on foot
- Mechanized: infantry units transported in semi-tracked armored vehicles.
- Combat Ratio: this ratio compares the attack value of attacking units to the defense value of defending units. The initial fraction is then rounded to the nearest to allow maximum simplification (1 in the numerator or the denominator).
- Zone of control (ZoC): term referring to the six hexes surrounding a unit. A unit that enters an enemy ZoC must stop its movement
3 – Units
3.1 Units in 2D and 3D
Figurines symbolizing a soldier or equipment unit type represent the units in 3D mode. In 2D, the units are represented by tokens. In this battle, the color of the units is as follows:
3.2 Units’ characteristics
The characteristics of the units are presented in the game when you choose to access more details about the units. In order to do so, you must tap the + symbol on the unit’s counter. Then, the characteristics appear as in the screenshot below:Each unit has many characteristics, the main ones include:
- Each unit holds a specific quality (in descending order): Elite, Veteran, Experienced or Conscript.
- The quality of a unit determines its ability to absorb fatigue. And a better quality unit will exceed its fatigue threshold later.
- See quality in §10.1.
- Life Points
- Each unit has Life Points (LP), representing its capacity at resisting to damage. A decrease in LF represents a loss of human resources or equipment.
- When the LP decrease, the State of the unit also decreases.
- When a unit has lost all its LP, it is destroyed.
- See units’ LP in §10.1.
- Energy / Fatigue (Fatigue being the opposite of Energy in Normandy 1944)
- When a unit moves, fights or is bombed, it accumulates fatigue. Fatigue symbolizes both physical and moral strain. That is why this concept is sometimes used in battles of only a few hours.
- At the end of each turn, part of the fatigue is cleared out. In addition, a unit that is not activated during a turn sees its fatigue decrease by an extra factor.
- Depending on the quality of the unit, fatigue is more or less bearable. But beyond a certain level of fatigue, a status level is lost.
- The status of a unit is its ability to conduct combat. It comprehends both its life points and fatigue.
- The status has 4 levels. The higher the level, the higher its attack and defense capacities will be.
- Attack and defense values
- These are the values used to calculate the combat ratio between attacking units and defenders.
- They depend on the unit’s quality and status.
- See attack and defense capacities in §10.1.
- Movement Points
- Each unit has movement points (MP).
- Depending on terrain, the distance that a unit can travel changes: it is faster to move on a road than in rough terrain.
- Units usually can use a strategic move that allows them to travel twice the distance. Following such a move, they cannot fight.
- The weather can influence on a unit’s movement capacity (see §4.2.3).
- See movement capacity in §10.2.
- In Normandy 1944, units are either fully supplied or OOS (there is no intermediate level).
- Other information
- Shooting Range
- Line of sight
3.3 Detailed order of battle / playing pieces
A detailed order of battle is presented in §10. Almost all units presented in this order of battle are available for players in the full battle. Some units, including Kampfgruppen, are used only for specific historical scenarios.
In Normandy 1944, the destroyed units cannot recover and are taken out of the game, with the exception of air units. The latter recover two turns after their initial destruction.
In Advanced and Battle scenarios, don’t forget to replenish your units regularly, either by removing them from the front on the Allied side or by allocating replenishment points on the German side, in order to avoid losing your units too quickly!
4 – Map, Terrain and Weather
4.1 Map and terrain types
The map represents the entire battlefield. A hexagonal grid was superimposed in order to manage movement and combat. The main terrain types are represented, they influence:
- The line of sight which allow your units to locate enemy units (see §6.1)
- Units movement capacity (see §10.2.1)
- Combat: some terrain types and separators (rivers) give an advantage to the defender (see §7.4.3)
The weather has a great influence on the conduct of operations. In general, the scenarios are based on historical weather, but in some scenarios, the weather can be determined randomly.
4.2.2 Effect of weather on aviation
The weather impacts air units. Overall, during sunny weather all air units can fly, and during storm all are grounded. Regarding overcast or rainy weather, air unit’s capacity varies. See the table details about air units in §10.3.
4.2.3 Effect of weather on units movement capacity
The weather also has a strong impact on unit’s movement capacity:
- In case of storm, Allied and Axis Armored units and Mechanized units of the Axis have their movement capacity reduced.
- In case of sunny or overcast weather, German units have their movement capacity reduced to avoid Allied air strikes.
The table below shows units movement capacity as % of their normal capacity.
5 – Sequence of play
The sequence of play is usually the following:
- Beginning of the turn: terrain and units characteristics update
- The 1st player plays: they can move their units and launch attacks in the order they wish. When done attacking, they end their turn
- The second player plays: first they may view the actions of the previous player (or of the AI in case of solo game) and then take their turn. When done, the turn is finished.
- End of the turn: the journal provides a briefing of what happened
- Note: from the second turn and on, each player sees the actions performed by their opponent before playing their turn
In some complex scenarios, the turns are divided into 2 impulses, the sequence of play is as follows:
- Beginning of the turn
- The 1st player plays their first impulse. His actions are generally limited by insufficient number of activation points
- The 2nd player plays their first impulse
- The 1st player plays their second pulse. Note that the units activated during the first impulse are no longer activated and are therefore unavailable
- The 2nd player plays the second impulse
- End of the turn
5.2 Activation points
For each scenario, activation points are given to each player. These points represent the player’s ability to command: the more points, the higher the player will be able to use their units.
- These activations points allow the use of units:
- Each action performed on a unit (movement, combat or replenishment) requires an activation point. However, once activated, all other operations on the unit are possible without spending extra points.
- Activation points are automatically spent when an action is performed on a unit. However, if the number of activation point is insufficient, the desired action on the unit will be impossible.
- Beware of stacked units: If you select a stack comprising two units and one activation point is available, no action will be possible. You will need to ‘unfold’ the stack and select a unit to be able to take action.
- The amount of activation points remains identical during the whole scenario:
- The number of points is the same at the beginning of each turn for a given camp.
- In case of multi impulses scenarios, the amount of activation points is the same at the beginning of each impulse.
- The defending player does not spend activation points.
In general, in simple scenarios, the number of activation points does not affect your ability to move all your units. Conversely, in complex scenarios, the number of activation points is limited.
In the game sequence, activation points will be shown as follows:
- (A): remaining number of activation points: 10 points on 20 points available in total
- (B): this symbol means that the unit is activated: so it can move, fight, etc. without consuming additional activation points
- (C): we are in the case of a scenario with several impulses: this unit is grayed out because it has already been activated in the previous impulse. It therefore cannot be used
6 – Line of sight and movement
6.1 Line of sight
In Normandy 1944, enemy units are visible only if they are within the player’s units’ line of sight.
Each unit has a capacity to detect enemy units. The ‘View Distance’, namely the number of hexes on which a unit can ‘see’ their enemies, is specified in §10.1.2.
However, this view distance can be reduced depending on the weather:
- Sunny or overcast: perfect vision
- Rainy: vision reduced by one third
- Storm: vision halved
Furthermore, depending on the distance between observing and observed units, the observed unit will be more or less identified:
- Unit located within one third of the view distance (i.e. up to 2 hexes if the view distance is 6, and in clear weather) → unit identified, i.e. all its characterisitcs are visible.
- Unit located between one third and two third of the view distance → unit recognized, i.e. you know the type of unit but do not know its defense capacity nor its detailed characteristics.
- Unit located further than two third of the view distance → detected unit. An enemy unit we know exists and is represented by a “?”, and which type is unknown.
6.2 Movement general information
During their turn, a player may move some or all of their units in the extent of their movement capacity. Recall that the movement capacity is specific to each unit and depends on the terrain type and the weather:
- A unit cannot enter a hex occupied by an enemy unit.
- A unit can move into or through a hex containing other friendly units. However, if such a hex reached the stacking limit, it cannot be crossed.
- When selecting a unit all available moves are displayed. When choosing a particular destination hex, the fastest way to do that is automatically calculated (i.e. the least number of traveling points).
- A player can move their units individually or in stack. The units moved in stack must begin their movement in the same hex. When moving a stack, it is the unit for which the movement is the most expensive, hex-wise, which is taken into account for the calculation of movement points.
- Movement is affected by terrain. The number of points spent to enter a hex depends on its type of terrain and the land between two hexes. The different costs depending on terrain are shown in Table Terrain Effects, see section 10.2.
- A unit following a road may use the reduced cost of road movement.
- Where a road crosses a river, it is assumed there is a bridge.
- When a road enters a town hex, it is assumed that the units use the cost of road movement.
- Movement points cannot be set aside from one turn to another. They cannot be transferred from one unit to another.
6.3 Strategic movement
Strategic movement is faster than normal movement. However, following a strategic move, a unit cannot attack. Strategic movement of a unit is visible because the arrival hexagons are surrounded by dotted lines.
Any unit can perform a strategic move if able to perform this type of movement (see in §10.2), and if the weather allows it.
- The weather can slow the movement, particularly in case of storm, and the weather especially affects the presence of Allied aircraft in the sky.
- In Normandy 1944, on clear days, the Axis units move slower because they must avoid crossing the path of Allied aircraft on patrol.
- Furthermore strategic movement is possible only on the roads and on some specific land as shown in the table below:
6.4 Crossing streams
The cost for crossing a stream (river or stream) is canceled by the presence of a bridge drawn on the map (crossed by a road / rail).
Otherwise, crossing a stream has the following impact on units’ movement:
- Cost of 2 movement points for Armored and Artillery
- Cost of 1 movement point to Mechanized units, Infantry and Commanders
- In Normandy 1944, the lighting units are considered as Mechanized units but have a cost of 2 movement points to cross the river
6.5 Controlling hexes
A thin green line shows the hexes you control. Controlling hexes is important because the supply can only be brought to these hexes. Moreover, if an enemy comes into hexes you control, it is immediately spotted even if you have no nearby units.
7 – COMBAT
7.1 General information
There are two types of combat:
- Land combat between adjoining units.
- Bombing from afar performed by the artillery, ships or heavy bombers.
7.2 Land combat
During this phase, friendly units can fight enemy units, which are adjacent to them.
- In Normandy 1944, a player is never compelled to attack.
- Units can make only one attack per turn.
- The fights are executed in the order chosen by the attacking player.
- Only one enemy hex can be attacked at a time. It is always the entire enemy stack which is attacked.
- Enemy units are forced to defend themselves if attacked: they cannot retreat voluntarily.
- The enemy units adjacent to the attacked unit cannot take part in the fighting, except with respect to air defense.
When the attack phase is launched, all friendly units that can engage in combat are displayed on the left side of the screen. Units potentially attacked are displayed on the right:
- All units of the attacking stack and all friendly ground units that are adjacent to the enemy unit and are available to fight are automatically selected. However, you may decide to unselect or not to fight.
- The units available to support the ground attack (land or naval artillery, aircrafts) are also presented but are not automatically selected. You can select up to 3 support units in each fight.
- Units stacked in the same hex may attack different adjacent hexes in 2 different combat phases.
A hex can only be attacked once per turn, but can be bombed several times.
7.3 Land combat taking place
7.3.1 Combat sequence
Each combat takes place according to the exact same sequence:
- Step 1: identifying the hexagon attacked and units participating in combat by the attacking player
- Step 2: calculating the combat ratio
- Step 3: taking into account dice modifiers and ratio modifiers
- Step 4: launching dice
- Step 5: battle outcome and showing combat results, namely losses of defenders and attackers
- Step 6: potential retreat for defender (if he has been forced to retreat)
- Step 7: possible advancement after combat for attacker (if defender has retreated)
7.3.2 Calculating the combat ratio
During step 2, the combat ratio is calculated comparing the total attack value of attacking units with the total defense value of defending units.
- To determine the combat ratio, total attack value is divided by total defense value. This result establishes a balance of power, in the form of a fraction (4:1, 2:1…).
- The initial fraction is then rounded to the nearest to allow maximum simplification (1 in the numerator or the denominator).
The resulting ratio is then the subject of many modifiers detailed below.
7.3.3 Using the combat resolution table
Each combat result depends on combat ratio (after modifiers) and a dice roll (after modifiers).
Based on this power struggle and dice roll (2D6), combat is resolved using the Combat Table. The results of this table are expressed in terms of loss of life points (LP).
In the table above, the red figures mean that the defender retreats one hex in addition to the loss of life points.
Example: the attacker has a combat ratio of 6 against 1 and rolls a 5 with a dice modifier + 2 = 7 for dice. The attacker loses 1 LP, the defender 13 LP and the defender retreats one hex.
The LP losses are distributed alternately on the most powerful units and by chance.
- The first LP lost is allocated on the most powerful unit
- The second LP lost is randomly assigned
- The third LP lost is assigned to the second most powerful unit
- The fourth LP lost is randomly assigned
7.3.5 Retreating and advancing after combat
In the most advantageous cases for the attacker, defending units must retreat after a fight.
- Retreat is performed in the opposite direction to that of the main attacker, unless this hex is fully stacked or occupied by the enemy.
- Retreat takes stacking into account: if 3 stacked units must retreat on a hex where 2 units are already stacked, only one unit can retreat in that direction and the other two will have to take a different path. Thus, the retreating units can take different escape routes.
- If the unit must retreat into an enemy ZoC, it loses additional LP.
If a unit cannot retreat because it is surrounded or is no longer able to retreat, as friendly stacks are full, it surrenders.
After the opponent’s retreat, some or all the units of the attacking stack can decide to advance after combat on the vacated hex.
7.4 Land Combat modifiers
All modifiers are cumulative without limitation.
7.4.1 Divisional integrity bonus
When all units of the same division are involved in a single combat, the attacker (or defender) receives a +1 bonus ratio.
7.4.2 Combined combat
When tanks and infantry units are stacked, the attacker (or defender) receives a +1 bonus ratio.
7.4.3 Terrain impact
The type of terrain influences combat for the defender (but roads have no influence on combat).
Some types of terrain impact combat:
C1 means a shift of one column in Combat Table impacting the combat ratio. In other words, a defender located in marshes benefits from a + 2 modifying the combat ratio (or C2), i.e. if the initial ratio was 5 against 1 in favor of the attacker, it will ultimately be 3 against 1, to reflect the difficulty of launching an attack in a flooded area.
7.4.4 Support (artillery and air support)
If one side benefits from artillery (land or sea) or air support, in ground combat, it will have a bonus at dice roll based on the number of support points engaged by the attacker:
For example, if 15 points are supporting a ground attack, the attacker will benefit from a L3 bonus representing +3 at dice roll.
Regarding air support, attacking aircrafts may be forced to give up the fight, or can be destroyed by enemy anti-aircraft units and therefore the dice bonus originally planned can be changed depending on the progress of the air attack.
Defenders cannot benefit from any support.
Commanders can freely stack with other units (they are not dependent on stacking limits). When participating in combat, they allow attacking or defense units to receive a bonus:
7.4.6 Tiger Tanks
If the German player attacks with a Tiger unit, he benefits from +1 combat modifier to his advantage regardless of the weather, terrain or the enemy.
The area of Cherbourg being fortified, the Allies player attacking in this area suffers from -1 modifier. Besides Cherbourg being a major city, the modifier for attacking Cherbourg is C3 or -3.
7.4.8 Attacking in clear terrain
Armored or Mechanized units attacking Infantry units in clear terrain benefit from a special bonus:
- C2: +2 for Armored units
- C1: +1 for Mechanized units
The requirements that must be met are the following:
- Defending Infantry units must be in clear terrain
- All defending units must be Infantry units
- One Mechanized or Armored unit among the attackers is enough
Bombardment main characteristics are:
- Bombardment is different than land combat
- 3 types of units can perform bombardment
- Artillery: their reach is 2 to 3 hexes
- Ships: their reach is 3 to 4 hexes
- Heavy bombers: they can bomb the detected units anywhere on the map
- Axis Troops can only bomb with artillery
- In Normandy 1944, the fighters-bombers cannot perform bombardment
- Several bombardments can be performed on a single hex each turn
There are two ways to perform bombardment:
- Select a ship or artillery unit: the enemy units within reach are automatically displayed
- Press the bombardment icon (top left-hand corner)
7.5.2 Bombardment impact
The table below shows the impact of bombardment in terms of loss of LP:
For example, if the attacker realizes a bombing with 15 points and rolls 7, the defending stack will lose 4 LP.
In Normandy 1944, land or naval units attacking through bombardment cannot lose LP. However, heavy bombers may lose LP. Moreover, as for the fighters-bombers, the mission of heavy bombers may be canceled if the Anti-aircraft (AA) is efficient.
7.5.3 Bombardment on identified, recognized or detected units
Bombardment points are fully effective on identified units, but if the units are simply recognized the points will be reduced by 25% and if the units are only detected by 50%.
7.6 Anti-aircraft capacity
The Axis units have anti-aircraft capacity, which has a specific scope. These characteristics are specified in the table in § 10.1.
- A unit with a 0 AA scope can use AA capacity for its own hex.
- A unit with a 1 AA scope can also protect adjacent hexes.
- The use of AA capacity in Normandy in 1944 is the only case where friendly units can bring help to the units in defense.
8 – Other Rules
Stacking works as follows:
- Units cannot enter hexes containing enemy units.
- A hex can contain up to 3 units.
- However, some units can freely stack (above the 3 units limit): Commanders (Allied and Axis) and the German units which size is smaller than a battalion.
- When a hex is full, it cannot be crossed by other units and must therefore be circumvented.
8.2 Zone of Control
The six hexes adjacent to a unit on the map are called Zone of Control or ZoC.
- The ZoC extends across all hexes except through the sea.
- The scope of the ZoC is 1 hex.
- All units have ZoC except commanders and OOS units.
8.2.1 ZoC and movement
A unit that enters an enemy ZoC immediately stops moving regardless of the number of movement points left. Besides, when a unit moves within the enemy ZoC, it can only move one hex.
8.2.2 Other effects of the ZoC
When retreating in a hex controlled by the enemy, the units lose some LP.
A supply line cannot pass through a ZoC unless the hex through which passes the line is occupied by a friendly unit (see § 8.5).
8.3 Reinforcements and replenishment
Reinforcements can arrive at any time in each scenario. In Normandy 1944, the reinforcements frequency is high as the Allies landed new troops on the beaches all the time, and Axis reinforcements were coming to stop them.
In Normandy 1944, reinforcements’ arrival time and location are set up from the start in the game design, and therefore cannot be chosen by the player.
8.3.2 Replenishment – Allied units
In some scenarios, the Allied units can recover automatically. This automatic replenishment is displayed in the journal.
When this rule is enabled (which is the case in the Battle scenarios and in the most important Advanced scenarios), Allied units are replenished in the following conditions:
- Units must not be in contact with enemy units. Therefore, they must withdraw from the front to be replenished.
- Units must have lost at least 25% of their LP.
- If a unit had 8 LP and lost only 1 LP, it does not reach the 25% threshold and is not replenished.
- Replenishment can increase LP up to 20% (of units’ maximum LP) per turn.
- A unit of 8 LP maximum that lost 5 LP can be replenished up to 8*20% = 1,6 LP, rounded to the nearest = 2 LP.
8.3.3 Replenishment – Axis units
Axis units can also be replenished in some scenarios. When replenishment is available for Axis units, it is also available for Allied units.
- Axis units’ replenishment is done manually according to the amount of replenishment points available for each turn.
- A unit cannot be replenished after attacking, remember to do it before!
- Replenishment can be performed even in contact with the enemy, and all LP can be recovered. This rule aims to highlight the flexibility of the German Army famous ‘Kampfgruppen’.
- Unused replenishment points are lost at the end of the turn.
8.4 Energy and fatigue
In Normandy 1944, the concept of fatigue corresponds both to physical and moral strain. The units get tired when they fight or move, and recover a little each turn.
Energy is the opposite of fatigue: a 10% exhausted unit has 90% energy.
8.4.2 Accumulating fatigue and recovering energy
The principles of fatigue accumulation / energy loss are:
- A unit takes part in a fight: 15% additional fatigue
- 1 LP lost = 1% of additional fatigue
- Unit retreats: 10% additional fatigue
- Unit is bombarded (whether it impacts its LP or not): 10% additional fatigue
Units recover energy as follows:
- At the end of each turn: 10% of energy
- Unit not activated during a turn: 20% more energy.
- A non-activated unit recovers a total of 10% + 20% = 30% energy each turn
8.4.3 Lack of energy
Fatigue has two major consequences:
- Beyond a fatigue threshold, a unit will lose a status level, which can be recovered if it rests. This threshold depends on the quality of the unit:
- Elite: below 30% of energy (70% fatigue)
- Veteran: below 50% of energy (50% fatigue)
- Experienced: below 60% of energy (40% of fatigue)
- Conscript: below 70% of energy (30% fatigue)
- When a unit loses its last point status level due to to fatigue, it surrenders
A unit can only be supplied if it is linked to a warehouse through a supply line.
- A Supply Line is a continuous path of hexes from a unit to a supply source or warehouse. This line cannot cross an enemy unit or a hex adjacent to an enemy unit unless a friendly unit occupies it.
- The supply lines can only go through controlled areas.
- Supply distances are not taken into account in Normandy 1944.
The supply warehouses and supply areas are visible on the map when tapping the supply button:
8.5.2 Units out of supply
Failure to supply a unit has the following consequences:
- An out of supply (OOS) unit cannot attack
- An OOS unit loses its ZoC
- Its movement capacity is halved
- It loses 1 LP per turn from the second turn OOS
The consequence is that a unit OOS is no longer a threat to the attacking units… so long as it does not return to a supplied area!
9 – Victory conditions
There are three ways to win a scenario:
- Destroy all enemy units
- Immediate Victory: the player occupies 1 to 3 key hexagons. The immediate victory is possible only in specific scenarios
- Victory on points: if no immediate victory happens or is possible, all turns are played and the player with the more points win
9.2 Victory conditions
9.2.1 Understanding victory conditions
The victory conditions are displayed in the briefing at the beginning of each scenario. This briefing is accessible when the journal is displayed at the end of each turn, and throughout the game if you tap the journal on the table.
One possibility to return to the journal is also to choose this option in the preference menu.
Also at the end of each scenario, a summary table displays the situation in terms of victory points.
It is also possible to display the detail of the main objectives. In the screen below:
- The number “1” circled in red means that the goal is a primary objective.
- The little curves around the circle mean that this objective (alone or in combination with others) provides an immediate victory when occupied.
- Additional information is provided on these objectives (points to be earned per turn and at the end of the scenario, points already earned).
- This display can be changed by pressing the button ‘objectives’
9.2.2 Victory on points: accumulating points
There are 3 ways to accumulate Victory Points in Normandy 1944:
- Destroying enemy units: victory points are earned for each LP lost by enemy units
- Occupying an objective hex: in most scenarios, it allows to accumulate points at the end of each turn
- Occupying an objective hex at the end of the scenario: some objectives give points at the end of the scenario. It is therefore necessary to occupy them at the end of the game
- For each scenario, one or more of these ways to earn points is enabled
It is important to read the briefing in order to understand the objectives: scenarios may seem difficult when one does not take into account the objectives that yield the most points.
9.2.3 Defeat or victory on points
If at the end of the scenario, your victory points are significantly lower than those of the enemy, you will suffer a defeat. Otherwise, it will be a draw.
If your victory points are higher than those of the enemy, it will be a victory. There are 3 types of victory:
- Marginal Victory is victory by a small gap. The enemy has been defeated but his troops can still fight.
- Tactical Victory: the enemy is defeated and the situation at the end of the battle puts the winner in a good position for further operations.
- Decisive Victory: you have reached your goals and put the enemy to flight.
For each scenario, the number of victory points to earn varies. The journal displays the number of additional points required for a higher level of victory.
9.2.4 Victory points: evolution during scenarios and battle
In scenarios where earning points is mainly related to the occupation of objectives throughout the scenario, the player occupying them at the beginning may have the feeling he is winning. In Normandy 1944, as in reality, the course of the war often changes in a short period of time, and after a fierce resistance, enemy defense often tends to collapse, so do not be surprised if your opponent wins at the very end of the scenario.
Victory Points in the Battle scenarios have been set to get a draw. In other words, if you can save time compared to the Allies you will win the battle, but if you take too much time in getting the objectives, the Axis will win (and vice versa). Moreover, insofar as the victory points in the Battle scenarios are highly related to the occupation of objectives, it is logical that the German Troops are winning at the beginning.
10 – APPENDIX 1 – Playing pieces
10.1 Characteristics of ground units
There are four types of units:
- Mechanized Infantry
- Other units (Artillery, Commander, Ships, etc.)
Each unit type has its own characteristics that give them different capacities and modifiers.
- Life points: Regiments and Brigade generally have 8 LP and the smaller units have 4.
- Quality: the higher the quality, the more a unit will maintain its attack and defense capacity despite its fatigue and loss of LP.
- Unit bonus: some units benefit from an attack and defense bonus. These are Commanders and Tiger Tanks. C1 means +1 on ratio and L1 means +1 on dice.
- Attack points: maximum attack points of a unit. They vary depending on the status of the unit.
- Range: units have 1 hex of range, expect for Artillery, which can bomb at 3 hexes.
- Advance after combat: all units can advance after combat.
- Bombardment capacity: Artillery and Ships have bombardment capacity.
- Defense points: maximum defense points of a unit. They vary depending on the status of the unit.
- AA defense points: Anti-Aircraft defense points. For Allies these points are theoretical because Axis doesn’t have aircrafts.
- AA range: Anti-Aircraft range of units.
- ZoC range: range of the Zone of Control of a unit. In Normandy 1944, all units have a range of 1 hexagon but some units (like commanders) don’t have any ZOC.
- Probability of availability: Ships are not available every turn.
- Replenishment capacity: most units can be replenished (auto or manual).
- Line of sight: view distance of a unit. In Normandy 1944, that distance is also influenced by the terrain between the 2 units and by the terrain type of the observed unit.
- Stacking weight: each unit is worth 1 stack point, except Commanders and German units of a size less than the battalion whose stacking weight is 0, so it is possible to add them in a stack in addition to 3 other units which gives a slight advantage to the German player if he knows how to use this rule.
10.1.2 Characteristics – American Units – Infantry
10.1.3 Characteristics – American and French Units – Armor, Artillery, Commanders and Ships
10.1.4 Characteristics – British units
10.1.5 Characteristics – Canadian and Polish Units
10.1.6 Characteristics – German Units– Wehrmacht (1/3)
10.1.7 Characteristics – German Units – Wehrmacht (2/3)
10.1.8 Characteristics – German Units – Wehrmacht (3/3)
10.1.9 Characteristics – German Units – SS
10.2 Units movement capacity
10.2.1 Movement – American units – Infantry
10.2.2 Movement – American and French units – Armor, artillery, commanders and ships
10.2.3 Movement – British units
10.2.4 Movement – Canadian and Polish units
10.2.5 Movement – German units – Wehrmacht (1/3)
10.2.6 Movement – German units – Wehrmacht (2/3)
10.2.7 Movement – German units– Wehrmacht (3/3)
10.2.8 Movement – German units – SS
10.3 Air units
There are two types of air units in Wars and Battles:
- Reconnaissance and ground attack squadrons: they bring support to land forces during combat. Attack aircrafts are more powerful, but reconnaissance aircrafts are available during bad weather most of the time.
- Bomber squadrons: they can only bombard units. They are very effective, in particular when combined with artillery to reduce Axis forces before an attack.
The main characteristics of the air units are:
- Life points: number of life points of the unit. In Normandy 1944, only units with antiaircraft (AA) capacity can damage air units.
- Defense capacity against AA attack.
- Ground attack capacity: used in the support combat table.
- Bombing capacity: used in the bombardment table.
- Maintenance issue rate: each turn, an air unit can be unavailable because of a maintenance issue.
- Number of turns between availabilities: heavy bomber units are not available each turn and have to wait three turns before becoming available again, if the weather allows it.
- Number of turns between availabilities after unit destruction: when a unit does not have any life point left, it is destroyed and becomes unavailable for several turns.
- Percentage of availability depending on weather: depending on weather, air units are available or not: bad weather reduces significantly the availability of Allied air units.
You can access the air units’ capacity details. When aircraft are available to fight, press the “+” at the bottom right of the cartridge presenting the aircraft:
Then, details about the air unit will be displayed:
11 – Appendix 2 – ScenarioS
Normandy 1944 contains 31 original scenarios:
Note that as part of the campaign, there are 10 scenarios for Allies and 10 for Axis, but among those 10 scenarios, 2 are the same in each, so the campaign includes 18 different scenarios.
Each scenarios is characterized by:
- A different part of the map
- A different order of battle
- A specific set of rules (air support, weather, replenishment…)
- Different objectives
11.2 Scenarios listing
The scenarios of the campaign must be completed one by one. Their aim is to make the player discover events of the Battle of Normandy, and the last scenarios offer a real challenge.
The progress in the Axis campaign is distinct from that of the Allied campaign.
11.2.2 Advanced scenarios
Most advanced scenarios are historical scenarios. They offer the player the challenge to replay the main events of the Campaign of Normandy. Some of these scenarios are excellent for a game in multiplayer.
Replaying the Battle of Normandy offers the opportunity to step into the shoes of the great Commanders-in-chief of this battle, and rewrite history:
- In the historical battle, the victory conditions are set to reach a draw after 42 turns if the Allied troops follow exactly the historical progression (the player must be faster than in history).
- In “Overlord countered”:
- Reinforcements arrive earlier on the German side
- The weather is bad
- With Allied air support grounded and German reinforcements in large numbers, this battle what-if offers the player a special challenge
- On the Axis side, in this plausible scenario, will the player be able reject the Allies to the sea?